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The 14th edition of Chicago Manual of Style says in section 19.40:
" A widow, that is, a short line--one word or two or three little ones
(some say anything less than a full line)--at the top of the page." This is
in a section called Bad Breaks.
What you speak of at the end of the paragraph I have heard referred to as an
orphan. However, there is no mention even of that word in the 14th edition.
I have never heard the rule about the number of syllables in the word; since
they say two or three little ones, perhaps that's where the idea came from.
As for the "associated to issue," I would say that seems wrong to me.
Associated with seems the only way to go with that. 'Course, that's just
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