TechWhirl (TECHWR-L) is a resource for technical writing and technical communications professionals of all experience levels and in all industries to share their experiences and acquire information.
For two decades, technical communicators have turned to TechWhirl to ask and answer questions about the always-changing world of technical communications, such as tools, skills, career paths, methodologies, and emerging industries. The TechWhirl Archives and magazine, created for, by and about technical writers, offer a wealth of knowledge to everyone with an interest in any aspect of technical communications.
Subject:Bibliography - Cubicles, Walls or Caves From:"Guy A. McDonald" <guy -at- NWLINK -dot- COM> Date:Thu, 16 Apr 1998 10:47:08 -0700
Attached is a fairly decent bibliography that I dug out of some old college
papers. From my readings, when a German group of management consultants
first coined the phrase "Burolandschaft" [office landscaping] the resultant
debate sparked numerous (and sometimes heated) arguments within the
facility planner coalition. Numerous companies, including Dow Corning &
Intel Corp., jumped on the bandwagon by adopting open plans. In the early
1990s, when American business restructured, the business -driven approach
really gained favor. Intel abandoned private offices in the early 1970s
because managers weren't able to keep up with everything. The all-cubicle
workplace emphasizes communication, exchange of information and
accessibility. This went along with the popular TQM philosophy that states
everyone's opinion matters. Other camps have resisted office landscaping
(Microsoft comes to mind) by embracing a theory that most new recruits
would prefer private space to open settings. When hiring, Microsoft
advertises to each prospective employee that they will probably receive a
private office. My wife and I verified this on a recent trip around
Redmond (sans McKids) by noticing that Bill & his elves are busy building
oodles and oodles of closet space. Microsoft shares some of the same goals
espoused by Dow Corning & Intel: close collaboration, innovation and
efficiency. So the question is, how does Microsoft do this without
adopting open-office architecture? By COMMUNICATING of course! Microsoft
holds meetings in comfortable conference rooms and uses e-mail
communication between employees. It is clear that with a balance between
personal meetings and impersonal memos that communication flows.
Beth Agnew, John Gilger, Alexia Prendergast & John Posada make good sense
to me. Rather than enter into a lengthy discussion on the theoretical pros
& cons of where our butts sit... I suggest we [discuss] find better ways to
tap our resources and enhance our product.
guy -at- nwlink -dot- com
Altman, I. (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior. Monterey, CA:
Becker, F. D. (1981). Workspace: Creating Environments in Organizations.
New York: Praeger.
BOSTI (1981). The Impact of Office Environment on Productivity and Quality
of Working Life: Comprehensive Findings. New York: Buffalo Organization for
Social and Technological Innovation.
Brookes, M. J. & Kaplan, A. (1972). The office environment: Space planning
and affective behavior. Human Factors, 14, 373-391.
Canter, D. V. (1983). The purposive evaluation of places: A facet approach.
Environment and Behavior, 15(6), 659-698.
Canter, D. V. (1985). Facet Theory: Approaches to Social Research. New
Canter, D. & Donald, I. (1987). Environmental psychology in the United
Kingdom. In D. Stokols & 1. Altman (Eds), Handlbook of Environmental
Psychology, vol. 2. Chichester: Wiley.
Craig, M. (1981). Office Workers' Survival Handbook: A Guide to Fighting
Health Hazards in the Office. London: BSSRS.
Donald, I. (1985). The cylindrex of place evaluation. In D. Canter (Ed.),
Facet Theory: Approaches to Social Research. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Donald, I. (1993). Evaluating work places: Cumulative developments in the
facet model of place evaluation. Proceedings of The Fourth International
Facet Theory Conference. Prague, Czech Republic, August 29- September 1.
Donald, I. (1994). Management and change in office environments. Journal of
Environmental Psychology, 14 (in press).
Donald, I. & Canter, D. (1990). Temporal and trait facets of personnel
assessment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 39, 413-429.
Duffy, E (1974). Office design and organizations: 1. Theoretical basis.
Environment and Planning B, 1, 105-118.
Duffy, E (1980). Office building and organizational change. In A. D. King
(Ed.), Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built
Environment. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Ferguson, G. S. & Weisman, G. D. (1986). Alternarive approaches to the
assessment of employee satisfaction with the office
Goodrich, R. (1986). The perceived office: The office environment as
experienced by its users. In J. D. Wineman (Ed.), Behavioral Issues in
Office Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Gould, C. C. (1983). Beyond causality in the social sciences: Reciprocity
as a model of non-exploitative social relations. In R. S. Cohen & M. W.
Wartofsky (Eds), Epistemology, Methodology, and the Social Sciences.
Hedge, A. (1982). The open-plan office: A systematic investigation of
employee reactions to their environment. Environment and Behavior, 14,
Hedge, A. (1986). Open versus enclosed workspaces: The impact of design to
employee reactions to their offices. In J. D. Wineman (Ed.), Behavioral
Issues in Office Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Hopf, H. A. (1931). Physical factors. In W. J. Donald (Ed.), Handbook of
Basiness Administration. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ian, D., (1994). The Structure of Office Workers' Experience of
Organizational Environments. Journal of Occupational & Organizational
Psychology, 67, 241- 259.
Jockusch, R (1982). Towards a redefinition of the standards of the quality
of working life. Paper presented at 20th International Congress of Applied
Psychology. International Association of Applied Psychology Edinburgh, July
Kenny, C. & Canter, D. V. (1981). A facet structure for nurses' evaluations
of ward designs. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 54, 93-108.
Kleeman, W. B. (1986). The office of the future. In J. D. Wineman (Ed.),
Behavioral Issues in Office Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Levy, S. (1985). Lawful roles of facets in social theories. In D. Canter
(Ed.), Facet Theory: Approaches to Social Research. New York:
Levy, S. (1994). Louis Guttman on Theory and Methodology. Aldershot:
Louis Harris & Associates. (1978). The Steelcase National Stvdy of Office
Environments: Do They Work? Grand Rapids, MI: Steelcase.
Louis Harris & Associates. (1980). The Steelcase National Study of Office
Environments No. 11: Comfort and Productivity in the Office of the 80s.
Grand Rapids, MI: Steelcase.
Makower, J. (1981). Office Hazards: Hove You Job Can Make You Sick. New
Manning, R (Ed.) (1965). Office Design: A Study of Environment. Liverpool:
Pilkington Research Unit, University of Liverpool.
Marans, R. W. & Spreckelmeyer, K. E (1986). A conceptual model for
evaluating work environments. In J. D. Wineman (Ed.), Behavioral Issues in
Office Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Oldham, G. & Brass, D. (1979). Employee reactions to an open-plan office: A
naturally occurring quasi experiment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24,
Shye, S. (Ed.) (1978). Theory Construction and Data Analysis in the Beha
vioral Sciences. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sundstrom, E. (1986). Work Places: The Psychology of The Physical
Environment in Offices and Factories. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Sundstrom, E. (1987). Work environments: Office and factories. In D.
Stokols & I. Altman (Eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1.
Vischer, J. C. (1989). Environmental Quality in Offices. New York: Van
White, S. & Mitchell, T. (1976). Organization development: A review of
research content and research design. Academy of Management Review, 1,
Wineman,J. D. (1982). Office design end evaluation: An overview.
Environment and Behavior, 14, 271-298.
Wineman,J. D. (Ed.) (1986). Behavioral Issues in Office Design. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.