## RE: On PDFs

Subject: RE: On PDFs
From: "Miller, Alan" <Alan -dot- Miller -at- prometric -dot- com>
To: "TECHWR-L" <techwr-l -at- lists -dot- raycomm -dot- com>
Date: Thu, 24 Apr 2003 16:22:24 -0400

Easy question. <Rhetorical question>So how come nobody's answered it yet?</Rhetorical question> The answer is: "In your calculator." :-{) Use this simple formula:

File size (bytes) / Transfer rate (bytes per second) = Time for transfer (seconds)

If your file size is given in kb, multiply by 1024 to get bytes (a kb is *not* 1000 bytes; it's 2^10 bytes, or 1024). Likewise, multiply Mb by 1,048,576 to get bytes (a Mb is 2^20). Then, divide by the transfer rate (56,000 bytes per second; this time kbps *is* 1000 bytes per second).

If you have a 1 kb (1024 bytes) file to download at 56 kbps, you get:

1024 bytes / 56,000 bytes/s = 19 s (rounded to two significant digits, the lowest precision of my input numbers)

Hmmm. Looks like a thumb-rule to me: 1 kb at 56 kbps = 19 s

If you want minutes, divide by 60; for hours, divide by 3600.

This calculation will return the *optimum* download time. Many factors can significantly increase the actual time. Several users sharing a line, for example. In that case, a good estimate would be to multiply the time by the number of users sharing the line at the time of the download.

Al Miller
"Chief Documentation Curmudgeon"
Prometric, Inc., a part of The Thomson Corporation
Baltimore, Maryland
www.prometric.com

A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.
-- Sir Winston Churchill

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